All Lakeview College of Nursing administration, faculty, staff and students are to value and maintain sound personal health, to respect laws and rules prohibiting drug use and to recognize the importance of chemical abuse prevention.
The College chemical and alcohol abuse prevention program consists of dissemination of information regarding the dangers of such abuse and referral of faculty, staff and/or students for evaluation by a professional counselor as needed. Those persons concerned about their own alcohol and/or drug use and/or about that of others are encouraged to contact the Dean or Registrar or any other faculty member.
Further information follows:
A Guide to Chemical and Alcohol Abuse Regulations
President Bush's National Drug Control Strategy issued in September 1989 proposed that the Congress pass legislation to require schools, colleges, and universities to implement and enforce firm drug prevention programs and policies as a condition of eligibility to receive Federal financial assistance. On December 12, 1989, the President signed the Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act Amendments of 1989 (Amendments), Public Law 101 -226. Section 22 of the Amendments amends provisions of the Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act of 1986 and Higher Education Act of 1965 to require that, as a condition of receiving funds or any other form of financial assistance under any Federal program after October 1, 1990, a university or college must submit a certification that it has adopted and implemented a drug prevention program.
Lakeview College of Nursing offers formal and informal opportunities which encourage students to develop healthy and drug-free lifestyles. This document provides summary information on resources which are available to both educate about and to discourage the abuse of alcohol and use of illicit drugs. Additional questions about campus policies on alcohol abuse and drug use can be answered by the Dean of Nursing.
Each student is responsible for reading the material herein and for understanding the consequences of non-compliance. Federal legislation requires that all Pell Grant recipients remain drug-free (on and off campus) throughout the award period or lose funds.
HEALTH RISKS OF ALCOHOL
Alcohol is a powerful substance because it affects almost every area of the body and its functions. Alcohol is the most frequently used and abused drug among college age people.
It is the ethanol in the alcohol that is the central nervous system depressant and is responsible for many changes in the body's chemistry. Ethanol is a toxic or poisonous substance the body must struggle to eliminate. As the body breaks down the alcohol to be eliminated, the imbalance of other body chemicals occurs and can result in mood changes and hangovers.
#1 ALCOHOL RELATED HEALTH RISK
Drinking and driving is the leading cause of death among college age people. Even a small amount of alcohol before driving (Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) of 0.05) can impair your decision-making ability, motor coordination, and reflexes. You don't have to be obviously drunk to be unsafe to drive after drinking. A BAC of 0.10 is considered legally drunk in most states. Persons who are even slightly intoxicated rarely think they are impaired to drive. If you choose to drink, be sure you make arrangements for a safe ride home - designated driver, taxi, friends, or parents.
#2 ALCOHOL RELATED HEALTH RISK
Why not alcohol, sex, and rock 'n roll? Intoxication (BAC 0.05%) occurs when a person is mentally affected by the drug alcohol. Intoxication distorts judgment, decreases your ability to recognize danger, and reduces your awareness of choices. Intoxication lowers your ability to make safe decisions about sex. Alcohol may influence you to have sexual intercourse with a person with whom otherwise you would never even have lunch. One's sexual choices are very important, and these decisions need to be made with an alcohol-free mind. Sober students are more likely to avoid sexual problems such as STDs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases), date/acquaintance rape, unintended pregnancies and incidents involving pressured sex.
OTHER ALCOHOL-RELATED HEALTH RISKS
Even though you may have never passed out from drinking, alcohol can still be damaging to your body in the following ways:
- BRAIN - hangovers and memory lapses. Alcohol affects memory and concentration which makes studying and understanding lectures more difficult.
- DIGESTIVE SYSTEM - nausea, vomiting, ulcers, liver disease, and other organ damage. Students who drink a lot may skip classes or studying, not just when drunk but also when sleeping it off or suffering from a hangover. Some miss academic work because of injuries sustained while drinking or because of increased illnesses that result from the effects of alcohol on the immune system (frequent colds and sore throats).
- CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM - high blood pressure, heart failure, and respiratory distress or failure. Friends may think that a person who has been drinking a lot is just "sleeping it off." In actuality, the person may have become unconscious or comatose and need to be taken to an emergency room. Medical intervention may save your friend's life.
- NERVES AND MUSCLES - loss of muscle coordination.
- REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM - sexual impotence, irregular periods.
- OVERALL - malnutrition, increased cancer risk, weakened immune system, injuries due to falls as well as violent behavior.
In addition, over consumption of alcohol can also have psychosocial effects. Depression and irritability of mood are often a consequence of frequent or excessive alcohol use. According to several specialists on college alcohol use, "Collegiate problem drinking is associated with difficulties with friends and teachers and in meeting responsibilities." Problem users are more likely to engage in social behavior that is destructive to relationships and try to avoid coming to terms with the negative consequences of such behavior. Not only are there legal risks and school sanctions involved in underage drinking (legal age in Illinois is 21) but young adults are more likely to have damage to the body and its functions which may not be evident immediately.
If more than one of the following risk factors are a part of your life or situation, you may have an increased risk of alcoholism should you choose to drink alcohol.
- Family history of alcoholism, alcohol problems or other drug abuse.
- Drinking to the point of intoxication or regular use of other drugs before the age fifteen.
- Heavy alcohol use for more than one year (6 drinks or more per occasion more than once a week).
- Consumption of tobacco in any form.
- Seeking out events where alcohol will be served.
- Experiencing more than two alcohol related incidents per year in which serious, negative consequences such as partial or total memory loss, nausea, headache, arrest, fight or automobile accident were the result.
- Most of your friends are heavy drinkers and/or other drug abusers.
HEALTH RISKS OF OTHER DRUGS
Each drug has specific effects and risks. Drugs are often classified according to major physical effects: such as stimulant, depressant, narcotic and hallucinogen. Here is some additional information on the prevalence of these drugs on campus, as well as details about their effects and risks.
Fewer college students take drugs than drink alcohol; however, because of the diversity and unpredictability of drugs, their use holds a significantly greater risk. Some risks are the same as for alcohol use; some are specific to the chemicals involved and some stem from issues related to drugs, such as their unregulated and illegal status.
Nicotine is the ingredient in tobacco that gives smokers (and chewers) the pleasant sensation they crave. In the past twenty years, tobacco smoking has emerged as one of the deadliest drug habits in America. According to the U.S. Public Health Service, smoking is responsible for about 320,000 deaths each year in the United States. Even before smokers contract lung cancer or emphysema (or the heart problems or other cancers to which cigarette smoking contributes), they encounter shortness of breath during exercise, yellowed teeth, wrinkled skin, and ashtray scented hair, breath and clothes.
Nicotine is a particularly easy drug on which to develop a physical and psychological dependence. Some research shows that a young adult can become dependent on nicotine after smoking just five cigarettes. The psychological dependence on nicotine is often particularly strong because users associate smoking with specific activities during the day--after meals, while studying, and while engaged in conversation. Giving up smoking or use of "smokeless" or chewing tobacco is difficult, but keep trying. Your chances of succeeding will improve with each attempt to quit. In spite of myths the to contrary, only one-third of quitters gain weight (primarily through changes in eating behavior), another third maintain their weight and the others actually lose weight.
"Smokeless" tobacco isn't any safer for the user, even though the growing number of high school and college age tobacco chewers demonstrate ignorance to this fact. In some schools as many as 50% of males and 20% of females admit to trying or currently using smokeless tobacco. Though smokeless tobacco minimizes lung-cancer risks, it is associated with quick growing jaw and mouth cancers, as well as significant gum and tooth problems.
You can develop a true physical addiction to caffeine. If you drink more than two servings of caffeine daily, your use may be causing you harm. Like all stimulants, caffeine raises blood pressure; significant long-term effects, such as high blood pressure, fibrocystic breast disease, and perhaps certain kinds of cancer may begin even during college. To minimize caffeine withdrawal symptoms, cut back use gradually. Caffeine is present not only in coffee, but also tea, soft drinks, chocolate, and many over-the-counter medications designed for weight control, alertness and fighting cold symptoms.
The manufacture, delivery, possession, or use of an anabolic steroid without a valid and legal prescription is a criminal offense as stated by Illinois Law. Physicians or other licensed practitioners are prohibited by law from prescribing anabolic steroids for the purpose of increasing strength, weight or muscle mass without a medical need. The issuance of a prescription for anabolic steroids for the enhancement of performance in a sport, game, or exercise is illegal.
Alcohol, barbiturates, tranquilizers and methaqualone are all central nervous system depressants, which means they retard nerve and muscle response. They can create physical dependence, and rapid withdrawal without medical supervision can be fatal.
Somewhat like alcohol in pill form, barbiturates make you sleepy or "drunk", depending on the dosage. They are only effective and safe for inducing sleep for a few days at a time; they are seldom long-term solutions for sleep problems.
Abuse of tranquilizers often starts unintentionally. A doctor may prescribe them for anxiety, back pain, muscle pain, muscle spasms, or some other condition, but a patient may become uncomfortable getting through the day without them and continue the medication indefinitely. In the long term, anxiety should be dealt with directly without resorting to drugs. Healthy methods of dealing with anxiety include relaxation tapes, stress management techniques, exercise, and a nutritious diet.
Phencyclidine, usually called PCP or angel dust, was developed as an animal anesthetic tranquilizer but is now used by some as a cheaper, more powerful marijuana. However, PCP has much less predictable and often more dramatic and even violent psychotic results than marijuana. Psychologist Stephen J. Levy, who has served as director of the Division of Drug Abuse at the New Jersey Medical School, says, "Even experienced users cannot be certain how it will affect them each time". Young people zonked on PCP frequently wind up admitted to county psychiatric units. More than occasionally, these users do not return to reality; they suffer from permanent psychosis.
Heroin, morphine, opium, codeine, and other narcotics have depressant effects and a strong painkilling action. Narcotics rapidly create significant dependency, even if snorted or swallowed instead of injected. These are not just drugs of the ghetto; numerous upscale urbanites have tried heroin and become dependent. Not many college students become addicted to narcotics, but those who do often disrupt their lives significantly.
Because of illegality, a narcotics habit is quite expensive. Many of the most serious physical complications of these drugs result from illegal status, such as overdose, allergic reaction to a contaminant, AIDS, or hepatitis from a shared needle. Frequent injections over a long period of time can lead to abscesses, blood poisoning, vein and lung infections.
CANNABIS - MARIJUANA AND ITS RELATIVES
Scientists have discovered over 360 chemicals in the cannabis plant. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is its most significant hallucinogenic component. Hashish, which is the pure resin of the plant, is approximately ten times more potent than regular marijuana. Pure THC is the most concentrated potent form; however, PCP and other potentially hazardous drugs are often sold as THC. Unlike most other drugs, which the body flushes out with water within a day or so of use, THC is fat soluble so it may remain in your body for several weeks.
Recent reports conclude that lung damage from smoking one marijuana joint equals that of smoking five tobacco cigarettes. Lung tissue of long-term marijuana smokers shows elevated levels of precancerous cellular changes. Marijuana negatively affects the reproductive system, memory and other brain function, and motor coordination.
Thousands of plants and synthetic chemicals contain hallucinogenic drugs that alter perception. Hallucinogens are extremely potent; they can create states more mind-altering than virtually any other drug. Potency varies significantly among hallucinogens; LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) is 100 times stronger than mushroom-derived mescaline. LSD comes in many forms, often on blotter paper or sugar cubes. The LSD experience usually begins slowly within an hour of ingestion; it lasts from 2 to 12 hours. Psilocybin has a much shorter cycle, and a mescaline experience may last from 10 to 18 hours. Many drugs sold as these hallucinogens are wholly or partially PCP.
Any central nervous system stimulant speeds up some major aspect of body function, heart rate, respiration, and so forth. It raises blood pressure which increases risk of cardiovascular damage. All major categories of stimulants - amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine, and caffeine - are used in significant quantity on college campuses. Caffeine and amphetamines are frequently used by students who want to stay up late studying.
Dr. Kathryn McIntyre, a psychiatrist at the University of Texas Counseling and Mental Health Center, warns that, "tasks that are creative are not enhanced" by chemical stimulants. A recent article in "Newsweek on Campus" added that "students who pull all nighters with speed may end up having an even harder time absorbing and retrieving information they are trying so desperately to master".
Some individuals who want to lose weight also try amphetamines; however, specialists report that "the drug loses its efficacy for this purpose after several weeks". Many amphetamines sold on the street look exactly like prescription pills but are actually illegally manufactured "look-alikes" with unpredictable strength and purity. Weight lost by using amphetamines is often gained back after the drug use stops, making the benefits of weight loss insignificant as opposed to the risk of the drug use.
Cocaine in any form is costly, can lead to use of alcohol or other depressants to counter cocaine's nerve disturbances, disrupts sleep and work patterns, and distorts perceptions of one's effectiveness, thus affecting academic performance. Cocaine use may also cause long term heart damage that goes unnoticed until a heart attack occurs at a young age.
In one recent study, cocaine was the second most prevalent non alcoholic drug used by college students (after marijuana). Though less than 4% of students in this study reported currently using cocaine, almost 17% had tried it. According to emergency physician, Dr. Charles E. Steward, "Cocaine related deaths and emergency department visits have skyrocketed some 200% since 1976, while admissions to treatment programs have increased by more than 500%".
The rush from snorting cocaine takes effect within a few minutes, followed by a high lasting less than one hour. Smoking cocaine, whether preparing it with other chemicals (freebasing) or buying it in flaked, ready-to-smoke form (crack), causes a virtually instantaneous, but short-lived rush. Because of this short, intense euphoria, introductory crack use frequently develops into abuse and psychological dependency. As one treatment program explains, "Crack delivers its most powerful effects with the very first dose. Cocaine and crack users try to recapture those first moments with every subsequent use. But it is never quite as good as the first time...the feelings of euphoria are followed inevitably by a 'crash', a state of deep depression and sadness. Crack users attempt to relieve these bad feelings by turning back to the drug that took them up before". Dr. Sidney Cohen, Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute, has said, "It is probably impossible to remain a 'social' crack user if crack is available. All who try the drug are liable to become crack dependent".
PHYSICAL PROBLEMS WITH DRUGS
Without medical supervision, drugs are more likely to result in negative physical effects. These effects may be significant or even fatal. The following are examples of untoward effects of certain drugs:
- hangovers (depressants)
- nausea and vomiting (narcotics, hallucinogens)
- tremors (cocaine, other stimulants, and tranquilizers)
- sexual impotence (depressants, narcotics; also amphetamines and inhalants, which exist in drug folklore as sexual enhancers, but which can actually cause impotence and
- temporary loss of erections)
- cardiovascular damage, including high blood pressure, deterioration of heart muscle, heart failure can be fatal (depressants, narcotics, cocaine, amphetamines)
- respiratory failure - can be fatal (depressants, narcotic)
- injury through loss of motor coordination resulting in automobile accidents, tripping, falling, drowning, and so forth (depressants, cannabis, hallucinogens, and narcotics)
- depressed immune system (marijuana, narcotic)
- memory impairment (cannabis)
DRUGS AND SEX
As with alcohol, the behavioral and psychological effects of many drugs can place you at greater risk for AIDS, STDs, unintended pregnancies, and acquaintance rape.
Additionally, shared intravenous (IV) needles are one very effective means of transmitting the AIDS virus, everyone should avoid needle use (those who do use needles, should never share needles).
DRUGS AND ACADEMICS
If you are under the influence of drugs, you may participate less effectively in academics. Tranquilizers and marijuana affect memory and concentration; intoxication may reduce intellectual motivation. You may also miss study and class time trying to obtain drugs or recovering from their effects. Drug-depressed or overstimulated nerves may decrease your ability to effectively handle acute or on-going academic stress.
SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS
Some students may choose drugs as a way to enhance social bonds; in the end, this benefit is illusory. Bonds based exclusively on shared drug use become destructive as the user develops psychological, financial, and sometimes physical needs to trust someone with whom he or she may have little in common other than drugs.
ALCOHOL AND DRUG REGULATIONS
Any of the following activities, or the aiding, abetting, inciting, encouraging, or by his or her presence supporting any of the following activities, constitutes misconduct for which students and student organizations may be subject to disciplinary action up to and including suspension and/or expulsion from the College:
Use or possession of narcotics, hallucinogens, illicit drugs, look a likes, and/or alcohol, except as permitted by law.
Unlawful sale, or transfer, or distribution o narcotics, hallucinogens, illicit drugs, look a likes, and/or alcohol.
Unlawful use, possession, sale, transfer, or distribution of narcotics, hallucinogens, illicit drugs, look a likes, and/or alcohol on College property or at any College activities or events.
Federal Regulations for Illegal Possession of a Controlled Substance
A. CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE ACT
The Controlled Substance Act (CSA), Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, is the legal foundation of the Government's fight against abuse of drugs and other substances. This law is a consolidation of numerous laws regulating the manufacture and distribution of narcotics, depressants, and hallucinogens.
The CSA provides penalties for unlawful manufacturing, distribution, and dispensing of controlled substances. The penalties are basically determined by the schedule of the drug or other substance, and sometimes are specified by drug name, as in the case of marijuana. As the statute has been amended since its initial passage in 1970, the penalties have been altered by Congress. The following information and charts are an overview of penalties for trafficking or unlawful distribution of controlled substance. This is not inclusive of penalties provided under CSA.
21 U.S.C. 844(a)
1st conviction: Up to 1 year imprisonment and fines at least $1000 but not more than $100,000, or both.
After 1 prior drug conviction: At least 15 days in prison, not to exceed 2 years and fines at least $2500, but not more than $250,000, or both.
After 2 or more prior drug convictions: At least 90 days in prison, not to exceed 3 years and fined at least $5000 but not more than $250,000, or both.
Special sentencing provisions for possession of crack cocaine: Mandatory at least 5 years in prison, not to exceed 20 years and fines up to $250,000, or both if:
a. 1st conviction and the amount of crack possessed exceeds 5 grams.
b. 2nd crack conviction and the amount of crack possessed exceeds 3 grams.
c. 3rd or subsequent crack conviction and the amount of crack possessed exceeds 1 gram.
21 U.S.C. 853(a)(2) and 881(a)(7)
Forfeiture of personal and real property used to possess or to facilitate possession of a controlled substance if that offense is punishable by more than one year imprisonment. (See special sentencing provisions re: crack)
21 U.S.C. 881(a(4)
Forfeiture of vehicles, boats, aircraft, or any other conveyance used to transport or conceal a controlled substance.
21 U.S.C. 84a
Civil fine of up to $10,000 (pending adoption of final regulations).
21 U.S.C. 83a
Denial of Federal benefits, such as student loans, grants, contracts, and professional and commercial licenses, up to 1 year for first offense, up to 5 years for second and subsequent offenses.
18 U.S.C. 922(g)
Ineligible to receive or purchase a firearm.
C. FEDERAL FINANCIAL AID
Conviction of drug distribution or possession may make a student ineligible for Federal financial aid.
Drug and Alcohol Programs Available to Students
The College offers informal counseling and guidance described in this Handbook, the College encourages all students to seek and take advantage of available treatment resources when needed. However, the College is also aware that students may not recognize and/or admit that they are having a problem. Faculty, therefore have a responsibility for assisting students and may initiate a meeting for purposes of discussing and evaluating the student’s situation.
The college has identified certain faculty by position and/or background and education who are considered Student Assistance Program contacts, and may be called upon to discuss any drug and/or related problems. The College of Nursing contacts are: Dean of Nursing, Director of Assessment, and the Mental Health Nursing coordinator. These individuals will make an initial assessment based upon their meeting with the student, and will determine if referral to a community health agency is necessary.
Should a student be referred to an agency for evaluation. Any cost of treatment will be the student’s responsibility, and may qualify for payment under the student’s health care plan. All records will be strictly confidential.
The following is a partial listing of community agencies that offer drug and/or alcohol abuse programs: Catholic Social Services, Center for Children’s Services, Crosspoint Human Service, New Choice, Alcoholics Anonymous, and Prairie Center.
Lakeview College of Nursing Courses Which Include Alcohol & Drug Education:
- N202 and N307: Patho/Pharm I and II
- N206: Dynamics of Professional Nursing
- N301: Nursing Care of the Adult Client
- N305: The Childbearing Family
- N308: The Childrearing Family
- N310: Nursing of the Mental Health Client
- N404: Community Health Nursing